Hunting in Serbia is organized in a different way. There are smaller hunting clubs each operating semi-independently, and associated with county hunting society, which falls under state hunting organization. Each smaller club has its managing team (president, secretary, treasurer, park ranger....etc. ).
Therefore, to become hunter, you have to apply to become a member of a club. This usually requires you to volunteer for 1-2 years during any kind of hunting, and non hunting activities. This way you get to know every person in the club, and in the end, the members vote if you are to join the hunting club.
Many hunting activities are organized and involve all the members. The minimum number of people allowed in the hunt is 3. This means that you can never go by yourself. ........and so on. If someone really wants to know, I can go into more details. I just wanted to give a short intro...
To answer your questions.
1. Yes, there is an extensive training (field, theory, and shooting).
2. We use both, rifles and shotguns. Shotguns (12, 16, or 20 ga) mostly for small game like, pheasants, ducks, geese, doves, quails, rabbits, and sometimes for predators (foxes and jackals). Rifles we use for wild boars, roe bucks, and predators. Calibers vary just like here. I personally use 12ga for small game, and 8x75 (7.9mm) for boars, and 223, or 22-250 for predators.
3. Bow hunting is still not allowed in Serbia. I think that is not allowed in most of the Europe (except private/fenced hunting clubs). Although, I've been hearing that they are considering bow hunting in Serbia in near future.
If you have questions I'll do my best to answer.
No bowhunting? Welcome to America!